29 April 2020

Jewish Cemetery of Chernivtsi

Publication was made in the framework of EVS project of Karolina Koziura, organized by ‘SVIT-Ukraine’ and ‘One World Association’ in cooperation with Christian Herrmann, ‘Chernivtsi Museum of Bukovinian Jewish History and Culture’, municipality and Jewish community of Chernivtsi, ‘The Czernowitz Jewish Cemetery Restoration Organization’ (CJCRO) and the Faculty of Jewish Culture and History, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin.






GPS: N 048°17′36.4 E 025°57′29.6 • AREA: 115,847 sq m = 11.60 ha




Courtesy: Karolina Koziura at ACADEMIAESJF European Jewish Cemeteries Initiative

31 March 2020

Mykhailivka: Camp to Village




Yahad-In Unum: "Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger, a Romanian-Jewish poet, was born in 1924 in Czernowitz in Romania, present-day Chernivtsi, Ukraine to a Jewish family. In [1941], upon the German occupation of the region, her family was forced to move to the city’s ghetto. The following year, they were deported to the labor camp of Michailowka in Ukraine, a site where Yahad has conducted research and where Selma ultimately perished after contracting typhus. Decades after her death, her collection of poems describing beauty found amidst a landscape of death were discovered and published. Her poems speak to the notion of creative resistance in the Holocaust—the idea that the spirit can rebel through art. In her last letter to a friend from the Michailowka camp, Selma still wrote of how art could be used to comprehend her experience: 'I have been here less than three months and I imagine that I will surely go out of my mind. Especially in these unspeakably bright and white nights that overflow with longing. Sing sometimes, late at night, when you are alone: Poljushka. Perhaps you will understand my frame of mind…Of course, one bears it anyway. One endures, although one things again and again: Now, now it is too much.' (Harvest of Blossoms: Poems from a Life Cut Short)"

Courtesy: Yahad-In Unum

27 February 2020

Schematism and Statistics • Schematismus und Statistik




Very large file, please allow adequate time for downloading!

David Levine: "I wanted to share with the group [Gesher Galicia] a resource which might be of interest. [...] The reason for sharing is that it is a very interesting historical and biographical resource for understanding the agricultural economy that our ancestors lived in and the people who worked and owned in it. The book lists not only the estates of the nobility but also those of smaller owners. The gazetteer lists the names of the owners as well as the people who worked in the management of the estates. It is a combination of geographical, biographical and agricultural information all of which is of interest from a genealogical context point of view. As Galicia [Bukovina] was in the Habsburg empire, Jews were far more free to participate in the agricultural economy. The names of some of the owners and those working on the estates are clearly Jewish. I got the book on inter-library loan as microfilm from University of Illinois and spent the day at the main San Francisco Public Library scanning each of the 750+ pages. As such the scans are pictures not OCR text that can be searched (sorry). […] What makes these easy to approach for research is that there are thorough indexes that start for


• Besitzer (owner name) on PDF page 690

• Beamten (officials who work on the estate) on PDF page 718
• Pächter (tenants/lessee names) on PDF page 727

The gazetteer is alphabetical by owner name. The list of estates are ordered by:

   
Galicia [PDF page 4]

same as below

Bukowina [PDF page 654]

Fideikommiss und Allodial (Landtäefliche) Güter
(entailed and landed estates) by name of owner

a) Weltliche (secular)

b) Geistliche (spiritual/church owned)
c) Stiftungsgüter (foundation/monastery owned)

d) Staats, Landes- und Gemeindegüter (state, province and community estates)

[...]

Happy to answer any questions."


David Levine
davidelevine@gmail.com
San Francisco, CA

27 January 2020

"He spoke Yiddish like a Jew": Neighbors' Contribution to the Mass Killing of Jews in Northern Bukovina and Bessasrabia, July 1941




Dr. Simon Geissbühler (Romania and the Holocaust: Events Contexts Aftermath, ibidem, 2016): Holocaust memory in Romania as well as in those areas controlled by Romania during the Second World War which are now part of Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova is fragile, fragmented, and often guided by a semi-passive attitude of wanting-not-to-know. […] A big gap exists between public knowledge about the Holocaust and scholarly research. Large parts of the Romanian population as well as people now living in those places where atrocities were perpetrated by Romanians do not want to know. Most traces of Jewish life before the Holocaust and of the Holocaust itself have been neglected or even erased. Jewish cemeteries in Northern Bukovina, southwestern Ukraine, and the Republic of Moldova are often in a state of neglect. Very few synagogues still exist, and most have long since been destroyed or converted for other purposes. Mass graves are difficult to locate and most often not even recorded on maps. There are only very few and no new Jewish or Holocaust museums in these regions. […] There are some positive countertrends, however, but it is too early to speak about a strong wind of change when it comes to Holocaust memory in present-day Romania.




Courtesy: Oxford Academic Press • Holocaust and Genocide Studies

07 December 2019

A Short History of the Jews from Radautz • O scurtă istorie a evreilor din Rădăuți



Daniel Hrenciuc: The Mosaic community of Rădăuți is among the oldest and most representative in Historical Bukovina. It was established in a similar manner to all other Jewish communities, such as the ones in Chernivtsi, Suceava, Siret, Gura Humorului, Câmpulung Moldovenesc or Vatra Dornei. The Jewish community’s dynamic role in the economy was appreciated and acknowledged by the local authorities. At the same time, Habsburg authorities wanted to colonize Bukovina and develop its economic, industrial and commercial potential.



Courtesy: Bondy Stenzler

18 November 2019

Rumänien und der Holocaust • Romania and the Holocaust



Mariana Hausleitner: "During the 1990s, some Romanian politicians and journalists demanded that Ion Antonescu, the 'State Leader' from 1940 to 1944, should be rehabilitated. Antonescu had been executed as a war criminal in 1946. Now, some historians were claiming that in 1942, he had not turned over Romania’s Jews to the SS. Yet previously, tens of thousands of Jews from Bessarabia and Bukovina had been killed after he had ordered them to be deported. During the Romanian occupation of Transnistria, over a hundred thousand Ukrainian Jews had been murdered. Serious academic research into these violent excesses did not begin in Romania until after 2005."


Courtesy: Osteuropa  Prof. Dr. Mariana Hausleitner

13 October 2019

Bukovina Under Austrian Administration 1775-1875 • Die Bukowina unter österreichischer Verwaltung 1775-1875



Hieronymus Franciscus van Drunen ["A Sanguine Bunch" • Regional Identification in Habsburg Bukovina, 1774-1919]: Writings with an Ideological Agenda. By stating 'We only wanted to highlight part of the successes and the apparent run of events through facts, which in turn explain the gratitude with which the commemorating population these days solemnises the centenary of the country's linkage with Austria', legal historian Hermann Ignaz Bidermann completed his 'Bukovina under Austrian Administration 1775- 1875'. By 1875, many of the conditions in Bukovina described by the first Austrian envoys had changed dramatically: the aftermath of the 1848 revolutions had accelerated the process of Bukovinian disengagement from Galicia and had eventually led to independent crownland status. Immigration had continued and urbanisation had taken root, especially in Czernowitz and to a lesser extent in the towns of Suczawa and Radautz. National consciousness among the elites of Romanian and Ruthenian speakers was on the rise and was to be enhanced by the founding of the Franz Joseph University in 1875. […] Not only were the publications by Bidermann and [Adolf] Ficker ['Centenary of the Unification of Bukovina with Austria' • 'Hundertjahrfeier der Vereinigung der Bukowina mit Österreich'] the first works for a larger audience dealing with Austrian Bukovina, they also specifically aimed at glorifying the Austrian achievements on the occasion of an anniversary which in the eyes of Romanian nationalists was no reason to celebrate to begin with. […]

Courtesy: GoogleBooks